Biocultural diversity is a global manifestation of life on Earth that arises from myriad local interactions between people and nature. It has a geographic dimension that results in specific patterns at regional and global levels. In 2000, we produced the first map of the global overlaps between biological and linguistic diversity. The results of this work have supported the development of international policy, as well as advocacy for Indigenous Peoples’ rights. Subsequent research carried out at the University of Florida has deepened our understanding of the geography of biocultural diversity, and of the factors that account for the maintenance or erosion of diversity in nature and culture.